Permanent Establishment Risk in Italy with a particular focus on Employer of Record (EOR) services.

The global landscape of business operations has undergone significant transformations in recent years. Companies are expanding their reach across borders, seeking new markets and opportunities. However, this expansion brings with it a myriad of challenges, one of which is understanding the concept of Permanent Establishment (PE) and the associated risks, especially in countries with intricate tax laws like Italy. In this article, we will delve deep into the concept of Permanent Establishment with a special focus on the Employer of Record (EOR) services and explore the specific nuances and risks associated with it in the Italian business environment.

Understanding Permanent Establishment

Permanent Establishment, as defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), refers to a fixed place of business where an enterprise's core activities are conducted, either wholly or partially. This can include a branch, an office, a factory, or a workshop. The presence of a Permanent Establishment in a foreign country can trigger tax liabilities, requiring the enterprise to comply with local tax laws and regulations.

PE Risk Factors in Italy

Italy, renowned for its rich cultural heritage and vibrant economy, is an attractive destination for foreign businesses. However, navigating the complex tax landscape in Italy requires a thorough understanding of the PE risk factors. Here are some key considerations:

  • Business Activities and Nexus: Determining the nature and scope of business activities conducted in Italy is crucial. If a foreign enterprise's activities exceed certain thresholds, such as having a physical office or engaging in significant sales activities, it may trigger PE status.
  • Construction Sites and Service Provision: Construction projects and service provision can also lead to PE in Italy. If a foreign company undertakes projects or provides services that exceed a certain duration, it may be deemed to have a Permanent Establishment.
  • Employee Relationships: Having an employee in Italy who regularly concludes contracts on behalf of the foreign company can establish a PE, even if the signature of the contract is then executed abroad. Even if the worker is an independent contractor, there are specific criteria that, if met, can create a taxable presence for the foreign enterprise.
  • Duration of Activities: The duration of business activities in Italy is a critical factor. Prolonged activities, even if intermittent, could lead to the establishment of a Permanent Establishment.
  • Double Taxation Treaties: Italy has double taxation treaties with numerous countries to avoid situations where businesses could be taxed on the same income by both their home country and Italy.

Does an Employer of Record (EOR) company reduces the PE risk?

An Employer of Record (EOR) is a third-party service provider that takes on the legal responsibilities and obligations associated with being an employer for a specific group of employees. In other words, an EOR acts as the official employer for tax and legal purposes, handling payroll, benefits, taxes, and other HR-related functions on behalf of businesses.

Employer of Record (EOR) services and Permanent Establishment (PE) risks are closely related concepts, especially in the context of international business operations. Understanding the relationship between them is crucial for businesses aiming to expand globally while mitigating legal and tax-related risks.

Instead of setting up a legal entity and hiring employees directly, the company can utilize EOR services. The EOR becomes the legal employer, thereby reducing the PE risk for the client company. Since the EOR is the legal entity employing the workers, the client company does not establish a legal presence in the foreign country, thus mitigating the PE risk. But, is this true?
Using an EOR provider, a client operating in Italy certainly reduces their risk by being less exposed to the authorities and to the market. However, as this is becoming a common practice nowadays, this believe is now changing.

More and more international companies are increasingly using EOR services in Italy to avoid a proper setup. This is tolerated as long as the employees hired via a third party are one or two, and they are not carrying out strategic tasks and operations on behalf of the company in Italy. For example, if the international company wants to hire a customer service agent or a data entry in Italy, that does not expose them much from a PE point of view. However, when the employee is a sales manager going to generate business in Italy, then the scenario changes completely.

Moreover, we also must admit that, unfortunately, there are businesses wanting to use EOR services to deliberately bypass the Italian tax system.

Managing PE Risks in Italy

Given the complexities involved, managing PE risks in Italy demands a strategic approach:

  • Conduct a Thorough PE Risk Assessment: Businesses planning to operate in Italy and wanted to use an EOR provider,  should conduct a comprehensive PE risk assessment. This involves evaluating all business activities, contracts, and relationships to determine potential triggers for PE status.
  • Seek Professional Advice: Engaging local tax professionals and legal experts well-versed in Italian tax laws is invaluable. They can provide tailored advice, ensuring compliance with regulations and minimizing tax liabilities. Moreover, using a local Italian Employer of Record provider can offer the added value who is missing with the international providers.
  • Documentation and Record-Keeping: Accurate and meticulous documentation of business activities, contracts, and relationships is crucial. Maintaining clear records can serve as evidence in case of tax audits and disputes.
  • Utilize Advanced Technology: Leveraging advanced technology and software solutions can aid in tracking business activities and ensuring compliance with local regulations. Automation can streamline reporting processes, reducing the risk of errors.
  • Stay Updated and Compliant: Italy’s tax laws and regulations are subject to change. Staying updated with the latest developments and ensuring ongoing compliance is essential to mitigate PE risks effectively.


Expanding business operations into Italy offers immense opportunities, but it comes with the responsibility of understanding and managing Permanent Establishment risks. By conducting thorough assessments, seeking professional guidance, maintaining meticulous records, and embracing technology, businesses can navigate the complexities of Italian tax laws and establish a successful and compliant presence in this vibrant market. With the right knowledge and strategic approach, businesses can thrive while minimizing the risks associated with Permanent Establishment in Italy.

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